MORPHOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE LANGUAGES FROM DIFFERENT LANGUAGE SYSTEMS (BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF THE SPANISH AND GEORGIAN LANGUAGES)
Spanish (Castilian) and Georgian are two completely different languages. The Spanish (Castilian) language is derived from vulgar Latin and is a branch of the Romance languages of the Indo-European language family. Georgian language belongs to the branch of Kartvelian languages of the Iberian-Caucasian language family and has nothing in common with Indo-European languages.
The different etymology of the Spanish and Georgian languages leads to their different morphological and syntactic structures. Grammatical differences are manifested in many directions, for example, different numbers and classifications of parts of speech, different grammatical categories of parts of speech, differences at the structural level, etc. Due to the amount of scientific material, this article deals with only a few features and aspects of nouns and verbs.
When comparing the nouns of the Spanish and Georgian languages, we discussed the grammatical categories characteristic of nouns - gender, number, case - and presented the main similarities and differences between Georgian and Spanish nouns. In addition, we saw how the syntactic confusion caused by the loss of Latin cases in Spanish was resolved, and we presented a list of prepositions that we use to translate nouns in different cases into Spanish. In the article, we paid special attention to the verb. We discussed the main difficulty of the Georgian verb – polypersonality and multiplicity of verb categories - and we searched for the forms-means that the Spanish language uses for the grammatical information of several verb categories foreign to the Spanish verb, but characteristic of the Georgian verb. A number of differences have been observed between the principles of classifying verb conjugations and verb structures.
Keywords: Spanish (Castilian) language, Georgian language, Morphology, Noun, Verb, Comparative study.