AN ANTHROPONYMIC MODEL IN GEORGIA: LINGUISTIC-CULTURAL PARADIGMS (ACCORDING TO EPITAPHS)
Ethnographic materials confirm the name given to epitaphs by the people – “tombstone inscriptions telling history”.
Epitaphs are the primary source through which we study: the anthroponymic system; linguistic features of anthroponymy; traditional Georgian and Christian religious names, the names reflecting the gender identity; cases of renaming from the maden name to the husband’s surname.
The study of epitaphs proves that the anthroponymic model confirmed in the materials of almost all desktop enumerations and church (confessors') books of the 19th century was not regulated by law in Georgia, but it was still strictly observed traditionally.
This approach continues into the 20th century. In most cases, it continues to this day.
Epitaphs are proof that in Georgian historical documents, the personality was not registered only by the three-part anthroponymic model. There were and still are plenty of cases of registering by name and surname, or only by name.
Epitaphs confirm the spread of officially legalized two-part anthroponymic model in Georgia.
In the epitaphs of the 19th century, there were cases when a woman was called not a spouse, but a wife. Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani laid the foundation for the mentioned tradition of differentiating between the gender.
Epitaphs also confirm the use of gender-specific names distinguished by affixes (Ioane-Ioana, Alexander-Alexandra...).
The influence of the Russian language also contributed to the spread of the mentioned in epitaphs and in general.
Epitaphs on the tombstones preserved for us the anthroponymized easily recognizable Georgian words. There are also nicknames. Epitaph is represented by: the name; nickname; the name, nickname and surname.
Often the names with epitaphs are presented as a base, and dialectal features are highlighted in nicknames.
The two surnames inscribed on the tombstones of deceased women confirm that a woman kept her own surname after marriage, although she also assumed the surname of her husband.
The mentioned “artificially introduced product of the era” would lead to the disruption of that form of social relationship, which was called the dismantling of the rule determining exogamy, the violation of rights; direct belonging of a woman to another society, to a person.
The study of epitaphs confirms that the Russian form of address by the father's name was quite common in Georgia (Parmenich, Razdenich...).
We consider the study of epitaphs useful as they reflect the country's ethno-culture and language.
Key words: Epitaphs; Anthroponymic model; Linguistic-literary forms; Ethnocultural history; Traditional Georgian names and introduced by Christianity; Nickname.