• Natela Phartenadze Doctor of Philological Sciences Associate Professor of Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University, Batumi, Rustaveli/Ninoshvili st., 32/35, 6010, Georgia,


In Georgian, endearment forms of address are expressed by nouns, as well as adjectives, pronouns and verbs.

Among nouns, proper, common nouns and nicknames are used with the function of address. In the Georgian language, all kinds of proper names are formed with the help of a diminutive form. Along with the well-known suffixes (-ია, -იკ/-იკო, -იკა, -ა, -აკ/- აკო, -უკ/-უკა, -ილო, -უნა, -უნია, -იკელა, -უცა... ქეთა, თიკუნია, ზურიკელა, დათუნა, ნანიკო...), there are also modern Georgian suffixes -ჩო/-ჩი (ნინჩო, თამჩო, ნანჩო/მანჩი...) and forms in which root vowels are doubled, such as: ლეელ, ლაან, სოოფ, ქეეთ, მააკ, რუუს, ნიინ, ნაან, საან...  They are an unaffixed basis of anthroponyms used interchangeably, where the vowel between consonants is pronounced continuously. They express affection. There are forms ending in a vowel + consonant suffix: ნიკუშ, ქეთუშ, მაკუშ, თეკუშ.., which were introduced into the Georgian language under the influence of the Russian language. There are also forms of names with dropped vowels: ნინ! სოფ! ლან! მანან! გელ! ლელ!... But they "transfer us into a dialectical space”.

At present, it is customary to give names in honor of historically famous people (names of characters of Georgian origin and Christian denomination predominate among them): ერეკლე, დემეტრე, სულხანი, მაკრინე, თეკლა, ალექსანდრე, ანდრია, ნოე, არჩილი, მარიამი, თომა, საბა, ნიკოლოზი, რუსუდანი, etc. and people try not to underestimate or change the form of these names as much as possible, even with affectionate treatment. But there are also shortened forms, for instance: გალაკტიონი - გალა; ზურაბი - ზურა; ეკატერინე - ეკა, დემეტრე - დემე, ალექსანდრე - ალე, ნიკოლოზი - ნიკო, მარიამი - მარი... Moreover, recently the names have become so shortened that they are reduced to only one syllable. For example: თი, ნი, თე, ლი, ან, თამ... Shortened names in the Georgian language are used in an informal setting, often when referring to a very close person or friend, and the use of such a form in the Georgian language is unacceptable for a non-close person or in an official environment.

Diminutive forms are quite often used in the official space. During official meetings, governmental or parliamentary meetings, we often hear the use of diminutive forms for officials: თაკო, ივიკო, ოთიკო, ოთო, რობიკო, მიშიკო, etc., what, in our opinion, is unacceptable. Although such behavior reflects the modern attitude to names and, respectively, the current state of the nomenclature of proper names.

Substantive adjectives also occupy a certain place among the forms of affectionate address. Such an address emphasize the evaluative-characteristic function, since the addressee, in addition to the nomination, also aims to evaluate the recipient. In addition, the adjective often appears as part of an address syntagm: ზედაზნის ნისლო; ტკბილო შვილო, ნიჭიერო პედაგოგო...

A linguistic resource for the morphological expression of an affectionate address is also an address expressed by pronouns. The pronoun ჩემო “my/mine” is often used in the address, expressing a positive attitude, but on the other hand, it often contains the semantics of advice: ჩემო ბაღებო, ჩემო მხარევ...  It should be noted that the pronoun ჩემო practically does not occur in the Georgian language as an independent form of address, although this pronoun forms various combinations with adjectives and nouns. a) ჩემო + noun (ჩემო მეგობარო, ჩემო შვილო...); b) ჩემო + substantive adjective (ჩემო მშვენიერო, ჩემო დიდებულო, ჩემო ტურფავ... and c) common variant - ჩემო + substantive adjective + noun (ჩემო ძვირფასო მშობლებო, ჩემო საოცარო ქალაქო...).

The uniqueness of the Georgian language is manifested in the specifics of the use of affectionate forms expressed by a verb or verb form, such as: გენაცვალე! გენაცვა! დაგენაცვლე! შენი კვნესამე! კესანე! გეთაყვა! თავს შემოგევლე, შენ შემოგევლე, შენი ჭირიმე! შენი სულის ჭირიმე! შენი სატკივარი მე! დედაშვილობამ, etc.  They have the same semantics, express the desire to share the misfortune of the object of treatment, to be in his place, to cure his illness.

We can say that the forms of affectionate address, in addition to the value standard, are a specific feature that reflects the national mentality and spiritual culture.


Keywords: Georgian, article, Verbal forms, proper names, Forms of address, positive.

How to Cite
PHARTENADZE, Natela. FORMS FOR ENDEARMENT IN GEORGIAN. PHILOLOGICAL RESEARCHES, [S.l.], n. VII, p. 274-283, dec. 2023. ISSN 2667-9612. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 14 apr. 2024.